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Saturday, September 30, 2017

BABE OF THE DAY


FCC Freedom of Information

OFF THE WIRE
FCC Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) The Freedom of Information Act,
commonly known as the FOIA, was enacted by Congress in 1966 to give
the American public greater access to the Federal Government's
records. The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996
expanded the scope of the FOIA to encompass electronic records and
require the creation of "electronic reading rooms" to make records
more easily and widely available to the public. Most recently in
December 2005, Executive Order 13392, "Improving Agency Disclosure of
Information," reaffirmed that FOIA "has provided an important means
through which the public can obtain information regarding the
activities of Federal agencies" and required Federal agencies to make
their FOIA programs "citizen-centered and results-oriented."

The following is an informal explanation of the FOIA process at the
FCC. Please consult the full text of the FCC's regulations
implementing the FOIA, found at 47 C.F.R. §§ 0.441 - 0.470, before
filing a FOIA request. In addition, you may wish to consult the United
States Department of Justice's annual guide to the FOIA entitled
Freedom of Information Act Guide and Privacy Overview that contains an
extensive analysis of the statute and FOIA case law. If these
reference guides do not provide you the information you need to submit
your FOIA request, you can also contact the FCC's FOIA Requester
Service Center via phone, email, or surface mail. Get contact
information for the FOIA Requester Service Center.


What types of materials are available without filing a FOIA request?

You do not have to file a FOIA request to obtain information which is
routinely available for public inspection, including records from
docketed cases, broadcast applications and related files, petitions
for rulemakings, various legal and technical publications, legislative
history compilations, etc. See 47 C.F.R. §§ 0.453 and 0.455. Much of
this information is available on our website.


How do I obtain publicly available documents and other materials from the FCC?

Many of these documents and other FCC publications already appear on
the FCC's Internet Homepage. Documents may also be viewed in the FCC
Reference Information Center at the FCC Headquarters at 445 12th
Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20554. The Reference Information Center
is open to the public Monday through Thursday from 8:00 AM to 4:30 PM
and from 8:00 AM to 11:30 AM on Friday. A person who wants to inspect
publicly available FCC records need only appear at the Commission's
headquarters and ask to see the records. Alternatively, you may write
or telephone in advance to schedule a date and time to make the
records available for inspection. Advance notice to the FCC is
suggested in some circumstances, i.e., if the request is for a large
number of documents or for older documents which may have to be
recalled from storage. Get more information about the Reference
Information Center.

Copies of any available materials can be made in the FCC Reference
Information Center or obtained through the FCC's copy contractor, Best
Copy Printing, Inc. (BCPI) at (202) 488-5300, (202) 488-5563 or
www.bcpiweb.com.


How do I file a FOIA request?

To make a FOIA request pursuant to 47 C.F.R. § 0.461, you have several options:

(1) You may fill out the Electronic FOIA Request Form and submit it to us; or

(2) You may write to us via surface mail. If you choose to send your
request via surface mail you MUST: (a) write the words "Freedom of
Information Act Request" at the top of your letter and on the outside
of the mailing envelope, (b) date your request, (c) give us your
daytime telephone number and/or daytime e-mail contact address so that
our staff can get in touch with you during normal business hours if
they have questions, and (d) provide as much information as possible
regarding each document you are seeking. You should also specify the
maximum search fee that you are prepared to pay for this request. Send
your letter to the address below.

(3) You may also fax or e-mail your request to the contact information below.


What types of materials are available through a FOIA request?

Under the FOIA and the FCC's implementing rules, you are allowed to
obtain copies of FCC records unless the records contain information
that is exempt under the FOIA from mandatory disclosure. To learn
about these exemptions, please scroll down to the next section.


What types of materials are not available under FOIA?

Although most FCC documents, records, and publications are accessible
through FOIA, some types of FCC records are not available. Section
552(b) of the FOIA contains nine types of records which are routinely
exempt from disclosure under the FOIA:

1.Records classified national defense or foreign policy materials, 5
U.S.C. § 552(b)(1);

2.Internal personnel rules and agency practices, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(2);

3.Information specifically exempted from disclosure by another
statute, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(3);

4.Trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from
a person and privileged or confidential, 5 U.S.C § 552(b)(4);

5.Inter- or intra-agency memoranda or letters which would not be
available to a party in litigation with the agency, 5 U.S.C. §
552(b)(5);

6.Personnel, medical and similar files, disclosure of which would
constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, 5
U.S.C. § 552(b)(6);

7.Records compiled for law enforcement purposes, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(7);

8.Records relating to the examination, operations, or condition of
financial institutions, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(8); and

9.Oil well data, 5 U.S.C. § 552 (b)(9).

Even if a record falls within one of these FOIA exemptions, the FCC
may, in some circumstances, release the records, depending upon the
exemption at issue and the circumstances of the FOIA request.


Are there any privacy considerations which the FCC must consider in
granting your FOIA request?

Under the FOIA Exemption 6 and the Privacy Act, the FCC may be
prohibited from disclosing information about an individual from a
system of records without the written consent of the individual to
whom the record pertains.


Can the FCC deny my FOIA request?

Yes. If the Bureau or Office that is the custodian of the records
determines that there are no records responsive to your request, or
that one or more of the FOIA exemptions described above applies to the
documents you request, your request will be denied in writing.


How long will it take to get the information that I request?

Under the FOIA, the FCC must determine within 20 business days of
receipt of your FOIA request by the FOIA Requester Service Center
whether it is appropriate to grant or deny a FOIA request. The FCC
makes every effort to act on a request within this time frame. If we
determine that your request will take longer than 20 days to process,
we will notify you in writing explaining the circumstances requiring
the extension and establishing a date for response of not more than 10
working days beyond the initial 20-day limit.

However, if the FCC determines that the request cannot be processed
within this 10 day extension, we will provide you with an opportunity
to modify your request so that it may be processed within the extended
time limit, or provide an opportunity for you to arrange with the FCC
for an alternative timeframe for processing the original or modified
request. We will also advise you of any additional charges involved.
For this reason, it is important for you to include a telephone number
where we can call you to discuss any issues involving your FOIA
request. Even if we call, you will receive a letter from the FCC
confirming your consent to any additional time and/or costs that may
be necessary to comply with your FOIA request.

You may seek expedited processing of your FOIA request if you have a
compelling need for the documents.


If my FOIA request is denied, what can I do?

If your FOIA request is denied in whole or in part, the Bureau or
Office that made the decision will notify you of the denial of your
request and of your right to file an administrative application for
review. The application for review and the envelope containing it
should have the words "Review of Freedom of Information Action"
clearly written on them and must be filed within 30 calendar days of
the date of the Bureau or Office's written decision. A FOIA
application for review should be sent to the Office of General
Counsel, Federal Communications Commission, 445 - 12th Street, S.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20554. A copy of the application for review should
also be sent to the person (if any) who originally submitted the
records you are seeking. If the FCC denies your application for review
in whole or in part, you may seek judicial review of that decision in
a United States District Court.


Are there any costs to making a FOIA request?

Yes. Under the FOIA, we are allowed to charge for our research and
reproduction services under certain conditions. Your FOIA request
should specify the amount of FOIA fees you are willing to pay. Please
note, under 47 CFR § 0.467(e), if the Commission estimates that your
search charges are likely to exceed $25 or an amount which you have
indicated you are willing to pay, we will notify you of the estimated
fee charge prior to doing the search and give you the opportunity to
revise or clarify your FOIA request.

Commercial use requesters will be assessed charges that recover the
full direct costs associated with the search, review, and duplication
of records.

Educational institutions, representatives of the news media, and
non-commercial scientific institution requesters must pay for
duplication only, and will not be charged for the first 100 pages.
News media requesters, however, are entitled to a reduced assessment
only when the request is for the purpose of disseminating information.

The Commission will charge all other requesters who do not fit into
any of the categories above fees which cover the full, reasonable
direct cost of searching for and reproducing records that are
responsive to the request, except that the first 100 pages of the
reproduction and the first two hours of search time shall be free of
charge.

If you believe you are entitled to a restricted fee assessment, or a
fee waiver, you must provide us with a statement explaining with
specificity the reasons demonstrating why you qualify for a restricted
fee or a fee waiver, including a statement certifying that the
information will not be used to further your commercial interests.
Please consult the rules, 47 C.F.R. § 0.470(c) - (e), when seeking a
restricted fee or fee waiver.

The search fee is based on the salary level of the employee(s) who
conducts the search. The fee charge is computed at the Step 5 of the
specified grade level plus 20 percent to cover personnel benefits.

Lane Splitting: Educational Guidelines Legislation (California AB51) Update...6/28/16

OFF THE WIRE
Lane Splitting: Educational Guidelines Legislation (California AB51) Update...6/28/16
Yesterday, AB 51 made it out of the Senate Appropriations Committee and was placed on their second reading file pursuant to Senate Rule 28.8…
28.8. Any bill referred to the Committee on Appropriations pursuant to Joint Rule 10.5 that does not appropriate money may not be set for hearing and shall, along with any nonsubstantive amendments, promptly be reported to the Senate with the recommendation it be placed on second reading if the chair of the committee determines that (a) any additional state costs are not significant and do not and will not require the appropriation of additional state funds, and (b) the bill will cause no significant reduction in revenues.
Today, AB 51 was the 8th bill on the Senate Floor agenda.
http://senate.ca.gov/calendar…
Will know what the status is later today. But…in the event it does pass a vote on the Senate Floor today, AB 51 will then go back for approval by the House of Origin because of the changes made to the bill while it was in the Second House. This is called Concurrence…
… Approval by the House of origin to changes made to a bill while it was in the second House (e.g., Assembly approval of Senate amendments to an Assembly bill).
If concurrence is denied, the bill is eligible to be sent to a two-house conference committee - A joint Assembly and Senate committee composed of six legislators, three from each House. The conference committee meets in public session to reconcile differences between the Assembly and Senate versions of a measure. Three Assembly conferees are chosen by the Speaker; three Senate conferees are chosen by the Senate Rules Committee.
If concurrence is approved, the bill will be forwarded to the Governor for his signature. If the Governor signs the bill, it will go into effect in January, 2017.
It is hoped that AB 51 passes both the Senate Floor and Concurrence in the Assembly by June 30 before Legislature goes on summer recess during the month of July.
Image brought to you by LaneSplittingIsLegal.com

New police radars can 'see' inside homes

OFF THE WIRE
How much more before you say enough is enough and DO something?
http://www.usatoday.com/…/police-radar-see-throug…/22007615/

At least 50 U.S. law enforcement agencies quietly deployed radars that let them effectively see inside homes, with little notice to the courts or the public.
635572821143535621-range-r

(Photo: L3 Communications)

WASHINGTON — At least 50 U.S. law enforcement agencies have secretly equipped their officers with radar devices that allow them to effectively peer through the walls of houses to see whether anyone is inside, a practice raising new concerns about the extent of government surveillance.

Those agencies, including the FBI and the U.S. Marshals Service, began deploying the radar systems more than two years ago with little notice to the courts and no public disclosure of when or how they would be used. The technology raises legal and privacy issues because the U.S. Supreme Court has said officers generally cannot use high-tech sensors to tell them about the inside of a person's house without first obtaining a search warrant.

The radars work like finely tuned motion detectors, using radio waves to zero in on movements as slight as human breathing from a distance of more than 50 feet. They can detect whether anyone is inside of a house, where they are and whether they are moving.
Play Video
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The RANGE-R handheld radar is used by dozens of U.S. law enforcement agencies to help detect movement inside buildings. See how it works in this video provided by L-3 Communications VPC

Current and former federal officials say the information is critical for keeping officers safe if they need to storm buildings or rescue hostages. But privacy advocates and judges have nonetheless expressed concern about the circumstances in which law enforcement agencies may be using the radars — and the fact that they have so far done so without public scrutiny.

"The idea that the government can send signals through the wall of your house to figure out what's inside is problematic," said Christopher Soghoian, the American Civil Liberties Union's principal technologist. "Technologies that allow the police to look inside of a home are among the intrusive tools that police have."

Agents' use of the radars was largely unknown until December, when a federal appeals court in Denver said officers had used one before they entered a house to arrest a man wanted for violating his parole. The judges expressed alarm that agents had used the new technology without a search warrant, warning that "the government's warrantless use of such a powerful tool to search inside homes poses grave Fourth Amendment questions."

By then, however, the technology was hardly new. Federal contract records show the Marshals Service began buying the radars in 2012, and has so far spent at least $180,000 on them.

Justice Department spokesman Patrick Rodenbush said officials are reviewing the court's decision. He said the Marshals Service "routinely pursues and arrests violent offenders based on pre-established probable cause in arrest warrants" for serious crimes.

The device the Marshals Service and others are using, known as the Range-R, looks like a sophisticated stud-finder. Its display shows whether it has detected movement on the other side of a wall and, if so, how far away it is — but it does not show a picture of what's happening inside. The Range-R's maker, L-3 Communications, estimates it has sold about 200 devices to 50 law enforcement agencies at a cost of about $6,000 each.

Other radar devices have far more advanced capabilities, including three-dimensional displays of where people are located inside a building, according to marketing materials from their manufacturers. One is capable of being mounted on a drone. And the Justice Department has funded research to develop systems that can map the interiors of buildings and locate the people within them.

The radars were first designed for use in Iraq and Afghanistan. They represent the latest example of battlefield technology finding its way home to civilian policing and bringing complex legal questions with it.

Those concerns are especially thorny when it comes to technology that lets the police determine what's happening inside someone's home. The Supreme Court ruled in 2001 that the Constitution generally bars police from scanning the outside of a house with a thermal camera unless they have a warrant, and specifically noted that the rule would apply to radar-based systems that were then being developed.

In 2013, the court limited police's ability to have a drug dog sniff the outside of homes. The core of the Fourth Amendment, Justice Antonin Scalia wrote, is "the right of a man to retreat into his own home and there be free from unreasonable governmental intrusion."

Still, the radars appear to have drawn little scrutiny from state or federal courts. The federal appeals court's decision published last month was apparently the first by an appellate court to reference the technology or its implications.

That case began when a fugitive-hunting task force headed by the U.S. Marshals Service tracked a man named Steven Denson, wanted for violating his parole, to a house in Wichita. Before they forced the door open, Deputy U.S. Marshal Josh Moff testified, he used a Range-R to detect that someone was inside.

Moff's report made no mention of the radar; it said only that officers "developed reasonable suspicion that Denson was in the residence."

Agents arrested Denson for the parole violation and charged him with illegally possessing two firearms they found inside. The agents had a warrant for Denson's arrest but did not have a search warrant. Denson's lawyer sought to have the guns charge thrown out, in part because the search began with the warrantless use of the radar device.

Three judges on the federal 10th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the search, and Denson's conviction, on other grounds. Still, the judges wrote, they had "little doubt that the radar device deployed here will soon generate many questions for this court."

But privacy advocates said they see more immediate questions, including how judges could be surprised by technology that has been in agents' hands for at least two years. "The problem isn't that the police have this. The issue isn't the technology; the issue is always about how you use it and what the safeguards are," said Hanni Fakhoury, a lawyer for the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

The Marshals Service has faced criticism for concealing other surveillance tools. Last year, the ACLU obtained an e-mail from a Sarasota, Fla., police sergeant asking officers from another department not to reveal that they had received information from a cellphone-monitoring tool known as a stingray. "In the past, and at the request of the U.S. Marshals, the investigative means utilized to locate the suspect have not been revealed," he wrote, suggesting that officers instead say they had received help from "a confidential source."

William Sorukas, a former supervisor of the Marshals Service's domestic investigations arm, said deputies are not instructed to conceal the agency's high-tech tools, but they also know not to advertise them. "If you disclose a technology or a method or a source, you're telling the bad guys along with everyone else," he said.

Follow investigative reporter Brad Heath on Twitter at @bradheath

HELMET TICKET - CORRECTABLE

OFF THE WIRE

In CA a helmet ticket is a FIX IT ticket, a $25 fine. But because the vast majority of riders refuse to learn, fight back or simply go buy something the cops want them to wear; the cops get to freely fuck with bikers. They write the tickets as non correctable, a $200 fine. And of course should you choose to wear a legal helmet that the cops don't like, they will swarm you and throw your ass in jail, all for your safety. We cannot fight for your rights, you have to be American enough to stand on your own. We can help you to fight. Or you can support us in our Federal Class action lawsuit

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Espinoza's Leather Story and Bios..

 AFTER TALKING WITH FELLA`S AND LEARNING ABOUT THEM, THEY MAKE ALL THE  CLUB CUTS// LET  THEM MAKE YOURS, CHECK THEM OUT.... NUFF SAID....
JUST LET THE ESPINOSA`S, KNOW THAT YOU SAW IT HERE..
MLH&R
SCREWDRIVER



Philip,
It was a pleasure meeting you (electronically) and an honor to be on your show. Per you request I have enclosed both the REVOLUCION magazine article and the bio from our website which combined give some background and facts of our shop and history. Just below are the bios of each member in chronological order. Thank you once again for your interest in our business and the opportunity to reach out to your fans.
Regards,
Joe Espinoza

________    THE CAST________
Gilberto Espinoza, SR
Owner/Founder
Rides 2010 Street Glide Trike
Gilbert Espinoza JR
First Son - Works at Shop weekends and Events
Rides 2010 Fatboy
Joe Espinoza
Second Son - Works many evenings, weekends and shows/events
Rides 2000 Softail Duece
Eric Espinoza
Youngest - Works full time at Shop and all events/shows
Rides 2010 Street Bob
Revolucion Magazine Article

Gilberto, Joe, Gilbert Jr. and Eric Espinoza of Espinoza’s Leather tell their story: one of sacrifice and hard work that spreads over three generations.

The vest is sacred throughout the biker world and without saying a word it communicates who we are, where we come from and whom we ride with whether in a group or solo. When Gilberto Espinoza started making leather bracelets and belts after a farmer strike in 1971, he had no idea that it would eventually lead him, and later his three sons, down a path to becoming one of the industry’s most respected makers of biker vests and leathers. But the story of this family-run business goes far beyond leather hides and sewn-on patches. Their story is of one man making sacrifices for his family, only to have his family do the same in return to take care of him. This is the story of Gilberto Espinoza, a quiet and humble man, as told by his three sons, Joe, Gilbert Jr. and Eric.

How did you start making leather goods?
Joe

My dad left his home when he was only 8 years old. He made his way from his childhood home near central Mexico  to Tijuana. After some diffucult years he made it into America where he started working as a meat cutter and that’s when he met my mom. My mother’s father was dabbling in belts and leather goods and my dad saw an opportunity to start his own business. He started out making berrets, key chains and bracelets with individual’s name stamped in them. We have pictures of a huge mountain of bracelets where people would come, pick one and we’d stamp in their name. The cost was one dollar and the stamp was free. That’s how my dad’s business first started in ’71.
Gilberto (The Father)
I started my business back in 1971. I was a meat cutter. One time the farmers went on strike and there was no more meat to cut. My father-in-law told me why don’t you go to the store get some leather, make some belts and wallets and sell them at the swap meet. While there I met a lot of bikers who would ask me to do little repairs and some other custom items. That’s how I first started working with bikers.
Joe
My Father started this business in the garage with a couple of wooden tables and a machine we still use today. My dad would be stamping out leather all day and my brother and I would paint the edges. My brother and I sacrificed every summer traveling to all the state fairs. There was one summer we had to work 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. and 10 a.m. to midnight on the weekends. We grew up in that world. We didn’t really see it as a bad thing. It’s just what we did. Little did we know, that 40 years later we’d have this huge retail place with customers from all over the world.
Gilbert Jr.

My dad’s first customers were at the La Mirada swap meet. A guy named Popeye introduced us to the biker scene. We started with only one table and a Dodge Charger. My parents would have to sit in the Charger because we didn’t have a canopy for shade. My dad would always say “I know it’s tough on you guys but in the end it will benefit you.” Sure enough my dad has proven that to be true.
Eric
I was the youngest so I was a little more spoiled and started at age 12.  I wasn’t ready to run the business but I had a general knowledge of how things worked. Joe taught me how to measure so we helped each other. Now I’m here everyday taking care of the customers. People come from everywhere. We had a guy come down from Switzerland just to buy an Espinoza T-shirt. Over the years my dad has built a steady clientele. We offer the type of customization others can’t. We can take a basic vest and do whatever you want with it. You might have a small chest and a big belly, but we can make a vest that fits right. That’s what my dad offers to the people that no one else can.
When it comes to the Chicano-style riders, the style has always been clean cut with ironed pants and shirts and never looking grungy. We always presented our bikes and ourselves the right way. That’s how we were as Chicano men back in the day and as time progressed that’s how we still are. Chicano men tend to want the longer vest that is fitted and looking good. They don’t want to go and buy a tiny vest. Also we treat everyone as family and with respect no matter what background you come from.
Joe

As you can see it’s always been a family business so it doesn’t feel like work, just spending time with the family. Eric is 100% like my dad. He has that type of personality that makes people want to come in and talk to him for hours. He acts exactly how my dad does by spending a lot of time with customers, but now my dad gets on his case for doing the exact same thing! (laughs). Two years ago I tried to figure out how to launch a Web site for a mass market. You can’t. How do you show a 100% custom experience to a mass market? The way I try to appeal to the public is to explain why it’s worth it to take a ride here whether you’re in San Diego, San Francisco or other surrounding states. Whenever you’re in California, come on in. I’ve been trying to get the word out that to wear an Espinoza cut is to have something special. We must be doing something right because we realize it’s more than a business when my dad shows up to an event and a crowd surrounds him. They all want to say hi to my pops. That’s when you know it’s more than making cuts for riders. Funny part is, my dad hates crowds and usually tells me ‘Mijo get me a beer’. They love you, huh dad?

Gilberto
The people they love me (big laughs).
Does the family ride together also?
Eric
My dad stopped riding in 1991 until about 3 years ago when I started working full time for him. Watching a pack of bikes leave the shop everyday, I’d get so pissed off and say “I need a bike! I need a bike!” I kept telling my dad I need a co-signer. (laughs) He finally said OK. I bought a 2010 Dyna Street Bob. I guess I was watching too much Sons of Anarchy. (laughs) When my dad was there with me, he fell in love with a trike and bought it on the spot.
Joe

I went with them just for moral support and sat on a Softail. I bought it that same day also. Two months later my brother ( Gilbert Jr.) bought a motorcycle and eventually, his son Gilbert III, bought a bike–now all three generations ride.

Gilberto - Final Thought...Thank you all for your business. 
________
ESPINOZAS LEATHER WEBSITE BIO
Starting in 1971 with the manufacturing of leather bracelets and barrettes, immigrant Gilberto Espinoza was determined to grow his small one man operation into a prosperous business.
Soon leather belts, chain wallets and purses made its way into the inventory. The result was growth warranting the opening of a formal manufacturing location. So the garage was returned to the family car and small but suitable shop was found in a strip mall in Rosemead.
In September of 1985 the first retail store was opened just two short blocks away from the first shop. Espinoza’s Leather Goods retail was born and the offering at the time was the same inventory of wallets and purses with some samplings of import products from Mexico.
That summer the first motorcycle jacket was made and Gilberto never looked back. Leather jackets, vests and chaps are his passion coupled with customer satisfaction.

US Knife Laws By State – How to Stay Legal

OFF THE WIRE

All State Knife Laws – Interactive Map with Knife Laws by State:

Find more detailed information here, including an interactive map:

texas-knife-laws-state-knife-laws-by-state

US Knife Laws- State Knife Laws by State

1. Alabama Knife Laws

What is Legal

Alabama has one of the best knife laws in the US.If you don’t like legal speak, here is the basics of what are legal under Alabama knife laws.

Balisongs/butterfly knives are legal.
Switchblades, gravity knives, automatic and assisted opening knives are legal.
Stilettos, dirks, and toothpick knives are legal.
All folding knives are legal.
Bowies are legal if carried open (like on your hip).
Bowies are legal to carry concealed if you are on your own property.
Double sided knives are legal, no  matter the size.
If the knife fits in your pocket, it is legal.
Out the front knives are legal.
What is Illegal

Here are notes on what kinds of knives are illegal under Alabama knife laws.

Bowies and things that are like Bowies are illegal if concealed.
Bowies are illegal to have in your vehicle.
A machete might be classified as a Bowie and it would be illegal if you carry it concealed.
A 11″ butcher knife has be found to be like a Bowie in court so don’t plan on using it in a crime.
Selling Bowies to people under 18 is illegal.
2. Alaska Knife Laws

What is Legal/Illegal in Alaska

Pocket knives are legal.
Balisongs are in a legal gray area.
Stilettos and dirks are in a legal gray area.
Out the front knives are in a legal gray area.
Bowie knives are in a legal gray area.
Large knives are in a legal gray area.
Gravity knives are illegal.
Switchblades are illegal.
Above is a brief review of Alaska knife law. The law specifically states that pocketknives are legal to both own and conceal carry. It also states that gravity knives and switchblades are illegal to own. Other types of knives are not outright banned, but may fall under the “deadly weapons” or “dangerous instrument” category. Alaska’s definition of a deadly weapon is a bit vague and depends a lot on court precedence as well as how crafty your lawyer is. For instance in Liddicoat v. State, the Court held that a steak knife was a deadly weapon. It’s definition of a dangerous instrument is not much clearer, and much of the law rests on Court decisions, not the statutes.

3. Arizona Knife Laws

What is Legal/Illegal in Arizona

Pocket knives are legal.
Balisong knives are legal.
Switchblades, gravity knives, Bowie knives, and stilettos are legal.
Knives of any length are legal.
It is legal for anyone over 21 to carry knives concealed.
It is illegal to not inform a police officer when they stop you that you are carrying a concealed knife when the knife is not a pocket knife.
It is illegal for someone under 21 years of age to carry a non-pocket knife concealed.
It is illegal to bring a knife into schools.
Outside of what is listed above, it is illegal to use a knife to commit a behavior that is already illegal. What this means is that it is illegal to rob a bank with a knife and you will be penalized more severely than if you robbed a bank without a weapon.

4. Arkansas Knife Laws

What are Legal Knives Under Arkansas Knife Law

Balisongs are legal.
Switchblades, automatic knives, gravity knives, and similar knives are legal.
Dinks, stilettos, and other stabbing knives are legal.
Bowies and other large knives are legal.
Knives of all sizes are legal.
Basically, if it has a blade, it is legal.

5. California Knife Laws

Legal Knives in California

Bowie knives are legal.
Large knives are legal (no restrictions in size).
Carrying knives in the open is legal in California.
Carrying knives concealed is legal in California for most knives.
Illegal Knives under California Knife Law

Misleading knives are illegal. These include: cane knives (and shobi-zues), lipstick knives, belt knives, pen knives, air gauge knives, and pen knives.
All undetectable knives are illegal. These include knives that won’t set off metal detectors.
Dirks, daggers, and stilettos are illegal.
Ballistic knives are illegal.
What the law is trying to get at are knives usually used by criminals to commit crimes. These are knives that don’t look like knives or don’t have a use as a tool. For example, you can’t do much with a dagger besides stab things.

6. Colorado Knife Laws

These knives are legal to own:

Dirks, daggers, push knives and stilettos are legal.
Bowie knives and other large blades are legal.
Disguised knives like belt knives, pen knives, cane knives, and lipstick knives are legal.
Balisong/buterfly knives are in a legal gray area.
Ballistic knives are illegal.
Gravity knives and switchblades are illegal.
These knives are illegal to carry concealed:

All knives less than 3.5 inches are legal.
All fishing and hunting knives of any length are legal.
All knives over 3.5 inches are illegal.
7. Connecticut Knife Laws

All Knives Are Legal to Own:

Balisongs, automatic knives, gravity knives, and switchblades are legal to own.
Dirks, stilettos, daggers, and push knives are legal to own.
Disguised knives like lipstick knives, cane knives, and boot knives are legal to own.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal to own.
Basically, any knife is legal to own and have in your home.
Some Knives Can Not be Carried (Open or Concealed):

Automatic knives over 1.5 inches are illegal.
Switchblades over 1.5 inches are illegal.
Stilettos are illegal.
Blades longer than 4 inches are illegal.
8. Delaware Knife Laws

Knives that are Banned in Delaware

Balisong knives are legal.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal.
Disguised knives like belt knives, lipstick knives, and cane knives are legal.
Throwing knives are legal.
Stilettos, dinks and daggers are legal.
Knives that will not set off metal detectors and have a point tip are illegal.
Knives with brass knuckles are illegal.
Switchblades and gravity knives are illegal.
Throwing stars are illegal.
If a knife does not fall into any of the illegal categories above, it is legal to own.

Limits to Carrying Knives

It is legal to carry a 3 inch pocket knife concealed.
Other than a 3 inch pocket knife, carrying any other type of knife concealed is illegal.
If the knife is not banned, you can carry it in the open. Only concealed carry is limited. Concealed means close enough by you that you can readily use it while being covered by something. Having a knife in your car counts as being concealed.

9.Florida Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

Balisong knives are legal.
Belt knives, cane knives, and other disguised knives are legal.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal.
Throwing stars and throwing knives are legal.
Undetectable knives (knives that will not set off metal detectors) are legal.
Ballistic knives are illegal.
The law does not limit individuals from owning, selling, or buying any knife except for ballistic knives.

Limits on Carry

You can open carry any knife.
Box cutters, multi-tools, and other work knives are legal to carry concealed.
In most cases, conceal carry of a common pocket knife with a blade of less than 4 inches is legal.
Anything outside of this has not been expressly banned or allowed.
10.Georgia Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own in Georgia

Balisong knives, often called butterfly knives, are legal.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal.
Throwing stars and throwing knives are legal.
Disguised knives such as cane knives, belt knives, and lipstick knives are legal.
Push knives, stilettos, switchblades, dirks, and daggers are legal.
Spring powered ballistic knives are legal.
Knives that are undetectable with a metal detector are legal.
In Georgia, there are no limits on the possession of knives. You can own any knife you want. There are only limits on carry knives.

Limits on Carry

It is illegal to carry, open or concealed, a knife that is larger than 5 inches without a permit.
For knives greater than 5 inches, you need a weapons permit.
11.Hawaii Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own Bowie knives and other large knives.
It is legal to own throwing stars and throwing knives.
It is legal to own disguised knives like belt knives, lipstick knives, and push knives.
It is legal to own undetectable knives (knives that won’t set off metal detectors).
It is legal to own dirks, daggers, and stilettos.
It is illegal to own balisong knives.
It is illegal to own switchblades
Only balisongs and switchblades are banned in Hawaii. Any other type of knife is legal.

Limits on Carry

You can open carry any knife.
You can not conceal carry dirks, daggers and knives similar to that.
You can not conceal carry knives with knuckles like some WWI trench knives.
You can conceal any other type of knife.
12.Idaho Knife Laws

No Knife Ban

Balisong knives are legal.
Switchblades, automatic knives, and other quick release knives are legal.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal.
Throwing stars and throwing knives are legal.
Stilettos, dirks, and other stabbing knives are legal.
Disguised knives like belt knives, lipstick knives, cane knives, and key knives are legal.
Spring powered ballistic knives are legal.
Pocket knives of any size are legal.
Age Restrictions on Possession

Need parental consent to possess a bowie or dirk if under 18.
Can not possess a bowie or dirk if under 12 unless your parents are with you.
There is no ban on the possession of any type of knife in Idaho. You can buy and own any knife you want. However, taking it outside of the house is a different situation…

Limits on Carry

It is legal to open carry any knife.
It is illegal to bring any knife (open or concealed) besides a 2.5″ pocket knife to school.
It is illegal to conceal carry any dirk, bowie, or dangerous weapon.
It is illegal to conceal carry a knife, even if you have a permit, when intoxicated
13. Illinois Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own in Illinois

Balisong knives are legal.
Disguised knives like cane knives, belt knives, and lipstick knives are legal.
Throwing knives are legal.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal.
Throwing stars are illegal.
Ballistic knives are illegal.
Switchblades and other automatic knives are illegal.
The state of Illinois only banned the possession of throwing stars, switchblades, ballistic knives, and knives that open with a press of the button.

Limits on Carry

You can carry any knife as long as it is not one of the banned knives listed above and that you do not have the intent to harm someone or break the law. The law goes into more details on this…

14. Indiana Knife Laws

What is Legal

Balisong knives are legal.
Bowie knive are legal.
Dirks, daggers, and stilettos are legal.
Assisted knives are legal.
Disguised knives like cane knives, lipstick knives, and belt knives are legal.
Switchblades and other automatic knives are legal.
What is Illegal

Ballistic knives are illegal.
Throwing stars are illegal.
Restriction on Carry

There are no limits to concealed or open carry as long as you do not bring a knife to school. The Indiana state code is available for anyone to read online but the excerpts below contains the code as well as an explanation.

15. Iowa Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

Balisong knives are legal.
Switchblades and automatic knives are legal.
Dirks, daggers, stilettos and other stabbing knives are legal.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal.
Disguised knives like cane knives, belt knives, and lipstick knives are legal.
Ballistic knives are illegal.
Only ballistic knives are outlawed in Iowa law.

Limits on Carry

It is legal to open carry any knife.
It is illegal to conceal carry a switchblade.
It is illegal to conceal carry a dagger or stiletto.
It is illegal to conceal carry a knife whos blade is greater than 5 inches.
It is illegal to conceal carry a balisong knife.
It is illegal to conceal carry disguised knives like cane swords and lipstick knives.
16. Kansas Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own Bowies and other large knives.
It is legal to own dirks, daggers, stilettos, and other stabbing knives.
It is legal to own disguised knives like belt knives, lipstick knives, and cane swords.
It is legal to own switchblades and other automatic knives.
It is legal to own gravity knives.
It is legal to own undetectable knives (knives that will not set off metal detectors).
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own ballistic knives.
It is illegal to own throwing stars
17. Kentucky Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own ballistic knives.
It is legal to own balisong knives.
It is legal to own switchblades and other automatic knives.
It is legal to own dirks, daggers, stilettos, and other stabbing knives.
It is legal to own disguised knives like belt knives, lipstick knives, and cane knives.
It is legal to own undetectable knives (knives that will not set off metal detectors).
It is legal to own Bowie knives and other large knives.
There are no banned knife types in Kentucky.

What is Legal to Carry

It is legal to open carry any knife.
It is legal to conceal carry any ordinary pocket knife or hunting knife.
Anything besides a pocket or hunting knife can be considered a deadly weapon and would be banned from concealed carry.
18. Louisiana Knife Laws

What is Legal/Illegal to Own

It is legal to own Balisong knives, also called butterfly knives.
It is legal to own dirks, daggers, stilettos, and other slim knives.
It is legal to own disguised knives like belt knives.
It is legal to own undetectable knives–knives that will not set off metal detectors.
It is legal to own throwing stars and throwing knives.
It is legal to own Bowie knives and other large knives.
It is illegal to own switchblades and other automatic knives.
The only banned knife in Louisiana are switchblades. However, if you are a law enforcement officer, you might be able to get an automatic opening knife because there is an exemption for “rescue knives” in the law.

Limits on Carry

Any knife is legal for open or concealed carry as long as it is not a switchblade.
19. Maine Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own Bowie knives and other large knives.
It is legal to own dirks, stilettos, daggers, and other slim knives.
It is legal to own throwing stars and throwing knives.
It is legal to own disguised knives like cane knives, belt knives, and lipstick knives.
It is illegal to own switchblades, automatic knives, and balisong knives.
The only banned types of knives are automatic opening knives. Balisong knives were found to fall under this category.

What is Legal to Carry

It is legal to carry any knife in the open.
It is illegal to carry daggers, stilettos, and knives designed for harming others.
Any knife outside of those 3 are legal to conceal carry.
The law bans the carry of “other dangerous or deadly weapon usually employed in the attack on or defense of a person.” This means that, as long as the knife was not designed to attack other people, it is fine to carry concealed.

20. Maryland Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a balisong knife, also called butterfly knife.
it is legal to own dirks, daggers, stilettos, and other slim knives.
It is legal to own switchblades, gravity knives, and automatic knives.
It is legal to own ballistic knives.
It is legal to own disguised knives like belt knives and lipstick knives.
It is legal to own throwing stars and throwing knives.
It is legal to own undetectable knives.
It is legal to own Bowie knives and other large knives.
There are no limitation on the type of knife you can own in Maryland.

Limits on Carry

You can not conceal carry a throwing star, dirk, switchblade, gravity knife, or bowie knife.
You can not open carry a throwing star, dirk, switchblade, gravity knife, or bowie knife with the intent to harm someone.
You can open or conceal carry any sized pocket knife you wish.
If a knife is not listed above, it is most likely to be legal for concealed or open carry. Read on to see why.

21.Massachusetts Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

Balisong knives, also called butterfly knives, are legal to own.
Switchblades and automatic knives are legal to own.
Ballistic knives are legal to own.
Dirks, daggers, stilettos, and push knives are legal to own.
Knives with brass knuckles are legal to own.
Disguised knives like cane knives and lipstick knives are legal to own.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal to own.
Throwing knives and throwing stars are legal to own.
There is no knife ban in Massachusetts.

Limits on Carry

It is illegal to carry, open or concealed, switchblades, dirks, daggers, stilettos, ballistic knife, double edge knives, and knuckle knives.
It is illegal to carry anything that is perceived as dangerous while disturbing the peace or being arrested.
Folding knives, Swiss army knives, and kitchen knives are legal to carry as long as you do not behave in a way that makes them dangerous.
There are a few more details to the law that can’t be explained in bullet points. Read below for the full explanation.

22. Michigan Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

Butterfly knives, also called balisong knives, are legal.
Dirks, daggers, stilettos, and other stabbing knives are legal.
Throwing knives and throwing stars are legal.
Bowie knives and other large knives are legal.
Hidden knives like belt knives and lipstick knives are legal.
Undetectable knives (knives that do not set off metal detectors) are legal.
Switchblades, automatic knives, and gravity knives are illegal.
What is Legal to Carry

All knives, except for banned ones, are legal for open carry.
It is legal to carry a hunting knife concealed.
It is illegal to conceal carry dirks, stilettos, daggers, and other stabbing items.
On top of this, you can not carry a dangerous weapon with intent to harm.
The law only limits the carry of dirks, stilettos, daggers, and other sharp, double bladed stabbing tools. If a knife can not be used to stab (has no point), it can be carried concealed as long as you do not have intent to harm someone.

23.Minnesota Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

Balisong knives are legal to own.
Dirks, stilettos, daggers, and other stabbing knives are legal to own.
Disguised knives like lipstick knives are legal to own.
Bowie knives are legal to own.
Throwing stars and throwing knives are legal to own.
All other knives are legal to own.
Only switchblades are illegal.
What is Legal to Carry

Knives with utility purposes are legal to carry.
Knives that can be used as weapons are legal to carry as long as you do not have intent to harm others.
It is illegal to recklessly use a knife that was designed to be a weapon.
It is illegal to carry a knife that was designed to be a weapon (and not a tool) with the intent to harm others.
Those are the general guidelines, read further to see the full details on what you can and can not own and carry.

24. Mississippi Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own Balisong knives, also called butterfly knives.
It is legal to own dirks, daggers, stilettos, and other slim knives.
It is legal to own disguised knives like belt knives.
It is legal to own undetectable knives–knives that will not set off metal detectors.
It is legal to own throwing stars and throwing knives.
It is legal to own Bowie knives and other large knives.
It is legal to own switchblades, gravity knives, and automatic knives.
Mississippi does not restrict ownership of any type of knife for those over the age of eighteen, who have not been convicted of a felony.

What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal for a minor or a convicted felon to own a bowie knife
It is illegal for a minor or a convicted felon to own dirk knife
It is illegal for a minor or a convicted felon to own a butcher knife
It is illegal for a minor or a convicted felon to own a switchblade
Limits on Carry

It is illegal to carry concealed any bowie knife
It is illegal to carry concealed any dirk knife
It is illegal to carry concealed any butcher knife
It is illegal to carry concealed any switchblade or automatic knife
You may carry any knife concealed if it is concealed in your vehicle, and not on your person.
You may carry any knife concealed if you are participating in a sports activity where such a knife is legitimately used.
You can open carry any knife in Mississippi, unless you are a minor or a student on educational property.
25. Missouri Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own dirks, stilettos, and other slim knives.
It is legal to own boot knives and other daggers
It is legal to own Balisong knives, sometimes called butterfly knives.
It is legal to own undetectable knives–knives that will not set off metal detectors.
It is legal to own throwing stars and throwing knives and even throwing axes.
It is legal to own Bowie knives and other large knives.
What is Illegal to Own

It is a Class C Felony to own a switchblade knife in Missouri, unless the person possessing the switchblade is in compliance with applicable federal law. The federal law, which governs possession of switchblades, is 15 USC Chapter 29. The law allows a person to possess and/or carry a switchblade on or about his person if the blade is less than three inches long and the person has only one arm, or the knife contains a spring or other mechanism designed to create a bias toward closure of the blade.

26. Montana Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, stiletto, or other push knife
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own a Bowie knife, or other large knife
It is legal to own throwing knives or throwing stars
It is legal to own disguised knives such as cane knives and lipstick knives
What is Illegal to Own

A switchblade knife is illegal to own in Montana unless you are a collector who is registered with the Sheriff in the county where your collection is kept.

Limits on Carry

It is illegal to conceal carry a dirk
It is illegal to conceal carry a dagger
It is illegal to conceal carry any knife with a blade four inches long, or longer
It is illegal to possess or carry any knife with a four inch blade or longer in a school building
It is illegal to conceal carry any weapon while intoxicated
It is illegal to conceal carry a weapon into a government office, bank or financial institution, or a place that sells alcohol for onsite consumption
It is illegal to conceal carry any “deadly weapon”
It is legal to open carry any knife that is legal to own in Montana
It is legal to carry any knife that is legal to own in your vehicle, concealed or openly
27. Nebraska Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

Balisong knives are legal to own
Bowie knives are legal to own
Dirks, daggers, and stilettos are legal to own
Ballistic knives are legal to own
Disguised knives like cane knives, lipstick knives, and belt knives are legal to own
Switchblades and automatic knives are legal to own
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal for a person who has been convicted of a felony to own a knife
It is illegal for a person who is a fugitive to own a knife
It is illegal for a person subject to a domestic violence protective order to own a knife while knowingly violating such order
28. Nevada Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own Bowie and other hunting knives
It is legal to own throwing knives and throwing stars
What is Illegal to Own

any knife which is made an integral part of a belt buckle
switchblade knives
Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to possess or carry a dirk, dagger, or switchblade on school or childcare facility property or in a vehicle owned by a school or childcare facility
It is illegal to conceal carry a dirk
It is illegal to conceal carry a dagger
It is illegal to conceal carry a machete
It is illegal to conceal carry any knife which is made an integral part of a belt buckle
It is illegal to conceal carry any knife which could be considered a dangerous or deadly weapon
It is legal to conceal carry a pocketknife
It is legal to open carry any knife that is legal to own
29. New Hampshire Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

In New Hampshire, it is legal to own any type of knife, as long as you have not been convicted of a felony against the person or property of another or of a felony drug related offense. Yes, machetes are legal.

What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal for a person who has been convicted of a felony against the person or property of another or of a felony drug related offense to possess a:

Stiletto
Dirk or dagger
Switchblade knife
knife considered to be a deadly weapon
30. New Jersey Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own disguised knives like lipstick knives
It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to won throwing stars and throwing knives
Any weapon for which a person has an explainable lawful purpose for owning
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own any weapon, with the purpose to use it unlawfully against the person or property of another
It is illegal for a person convicted of certain crimes (see below) to own a gravity knife, switchblade, dirk, dagger, stiletto, or other dangerous knife
It is illegal for certain mentally ill people to own a gravity knife, switchblade, dirk, dagger, stiletto, or other dangerous knife
It is illegal to own a gravity knife, switchblade, dirk, dagger, stiletto, or other dangerous knife with any explainable lawful purpose
A conviction for aggravated assault, arson, burglary, escape, extortion, homicide, kidnapping, robbery, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, bias intimidation, possession of a prohibited weapon, possession of weapon for an unlawful purpose, manufacture or transport of a prohibited weapon, unlawful possession or sale of a controlled dangerous substance, or endangering the welfare of a child prevents a person from owning certain types of knives in New Jersey.

31. New Mexico Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to own throwing stars or knives
It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own a switchblade
It is illegal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
32. New York Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a hunting knife
It is legal to own a dirk or dagger
It is legal to own a stiletto
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own a pilum ballistic knife
It is illegal to own a metal knuckle knife
It is illegal to own a cane sword
It is illegal to own throwing stars
It is illegal to own any knife if you are not a U.S. citizen
It is illegal to own any knife adapted for use primarily as a weapon
It may be illegal to own a gravity knife, without a valid hunting and/or fishing license
It may be illegal to own a switchblade knife, without a valid hunting and/or fishing license
33. North Carolina Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own bowie knife
It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a switchblade
It is legal to own a gravity knife
It is legal to own a disguised knife, such as in a pen or lipstick
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own any spring-loaded projectile knife
It is illegal to own a ballistic knife
It is illegal to own any weapon of similar character to a projectile or ballistic knife
34. North Dakota Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own any type of knife in North Dakota. North Dakota has no laws making it a crime to own any kind of knife.

Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to conceal carry a gravity knife or switchblade
It is illegal to conceal carry a machete
It is illegal to conceal carry a scimitar, backsword, or sabre
It is illegal to conceal carry a stiletto
It is illegal to conceal carry a sword
It is illegal to conceal carry a dirk or dagger
It is illegal to conceal carry any knife with a blade 5 inches or longer
It is legal to open carry any type of knife
35. Ohio Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a switchblade or gravity knife
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife as well as Balisong trainers
It is legal to own a ballistic knife
It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
What is Illegal to Own

It is legal to own any type of knife in Ohio.
36. Oklahoma Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a bowie knife
It is legal to own a switchblade or gravity knife
It is legal to own a sword cane
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife as well as Balisong trainers
It is legal to own a stiletto
What is Illegal to Own

It is not illegal to own any kind of knife in Oklahoma.
Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to conceal or open carry a dagger
It is illegal to conceal or open carry bowie knife
It is illegal to conceal or open carry a dirk knife
It is illegal to conceal or open carry a switchblade knife
It is illegal to conceal or open carry a spring-type knife
It is illegal to conceal or open carry a sword cane
It is illegal to conceal or open carry a knife with a blade that opens automatically by hand pressure applied to a button, spring, or other device in the handle of the knife
It is illegal to conceal or open carry any “offensive weapon”
As the no carry law states that it is illegal to carry a weapon, “upon or about” the person, Oklahoma’s no carry law extends to items carried in a vehicle, not just on a person.

37. Oregon Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to own a switchblade or other automatic knife
It is legal to own a ballistic knife
It is legal to own a gravity knife
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife and Balisong trainer
It is legal to own a stiletto
What is Illegal to Own

Oregon law does not restrict the ownership of any type of knife for those who have not been convicted of a felony. As a matter of fact, in 1984 in State v. Delgado, the Supreme Court of Oregon found that former Oregon statute § 166.510(1) was unconstitutional because it prohibited the mere possession and mere carrying of a weapon. The Court believed that restricting the possession and open carrying of weapons for non-felons was a violation of a person’s right to bear arms under the 2nd Amendment to the Constitution.

38. Pennsylvania Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own Bowie knife
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own a penknife
It is legal to own a concealed knife, such as in a lipstick or belt buckle
It is legal to own any kind of hunting knife
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own a dagger
It is illegal to own any automatic knife
It is illegal to own a sword cane
It is illegal to own any implement for the infliction of bodily injury, which serves no “common lawful purpose”
39. Rhode Island Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a sword cane
It is legal to own a concealed knife, such as in a belt buckle or lipstick
It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own a switchblade
What is Illegal to Own

It is not illegal to own any type of knife in Rhode Island, so long as you do not intend to use it unlawfully against another.
Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to conceal carry a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is illegal to conceal carry a stiletto
It is illegal to conceal carry a sword cane
It is illegal to conceal carry a bowie knife
It is illegal to conceal carry any knife with a blade more than 3 inches in length
It is legal to open carry any type of knife in Rhode Island
40. South Carolina Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a switchblade
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly, knife
It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a disguised knife, such as in a lipstick or belt buckle
What is Illegal to Own

It is legal to own any type of knife in South Carolina.
Restrictions on Carry

It is legal to conceal carry dirk
It is legal to conceal carry a switchblade knife
It is legal to conceal carry a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to conceal carry a Bowie knife
It is legal to conceal carry a stiletto
41. South Dakota Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a switchblade, or any type of automatic knife
It is legal to own a ballistic knife
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a sword cane
It is legal to own a disguised knife, such as in a belt buckle or lipstick
What is Illegal to Own

It is not illegal to own any type of knife in South Dakota
In 2006, the legislature repealed the only law prohibiting ownership of any type of knife. The former statute, 22-14-19, made it illegal for a person to own, possess or sell a ballistic knife.

Restrictions on Carry

Any knife may be carried openly or concealed
South Dakota’s statutes discuss dangerous weapons and carrying concealed weapons, however neither of the statutes apply to knives, as its definition of “concealed” is “any firearm that is totally hidden from view.”



42. Tennessee Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a disguised knife such as in a belt buckle or lipstick
It is legal to own a stiletto
It may be legal to own a butterfly knife, however, one should check with an attorney first, as Tennessee’s definition of a switchblade could include a butterfly knife. Courts in most states would call a butterfly knife one that opens by “gravity or inertia”, which is how Tennessee defines a switchblade knife. However, other Courts have viewed butterfly knives, not as automatic or gravity knives, but as a type of pocketknife. As of June 2013, Tennessee’s Courts have yet to weigh in.

What is Illegal to Own

Tennessee Code § 39-17-1302 makes it illegal to own a switchblade knife or any other implement for the infliction of serious bodily injury or death, which has no common lawful purpose.

Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to open or conceal carry a switchblade
It is illegal to open or conceal carry any knife with a blade exceeding four inches in length, with the intent to go armed.
43. Texas Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own throwing stars or any type of throwing knife
It is legal to own dirks, daggers, stilettos, and other stabbing knives
It is legal to own a bowie knife
It is legal to own a sword or spear
It is legal to own a switchblade knife
It is legal to own a pocketknife
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own a gravity knife
The Texas state legislature does not limit other knives.



44. Utah Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a bowie knife
It is legal to own an automatic or gravity knife
It is legal to own a disguised knife, such as a lipstick or belt buckle
What is Illegal to Own

Utah law creates two categories of people who may not own certain weapons, defined as “dangerous weapons”.

A category I restricted person is someone who:

has been convicted of a violent felony under Utah Code Ann. § 76-3-203.5
is on probation or parole for any felony
is on parole from a facility is under contract with the Division of Juvenile Justice Services, that provides 24-hour supervision and confinement for youth offenders who have been committed to the division for custody and rehabilitation
has been adjudicated delinquent, within the last 10 years, for an offense that if committed by an adult would have been a violent felony under Utah Code Ann. § 76-3-203.5
is illegally or unlawfully in the United States
45. Vermont Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a bowie knife
It is legal to own a disguised knife, such as a lipstick or belt buckle
It is legal to own throwing starts or knives
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own a switchblade with a blade that is 3 inches or longer
Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to carry openly or concealed a dangerous or deadly weapon with the intent of using it to harm another.
It is illegal to carry openly or concealed a dangerous or deadly weapon onto school or government property.
Vermont law does not place any other restrictions on the carrying of knives. In 1903, in State v. Rosenthal, Vermont’s Supreme Court said that under the general laws, a person may carry a dangerous or deadly weapon, openly or concealed, unless he did it with the intent or avowed purpose of injuring another.

46. Virginia Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a bowie knife
It is legal to own a switchblade
It is legal to own a ballistic knife
It is legal to own throwing stars or other throwing knives
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
What is Illegal to Own

It is legal to own any type of knife in Virginia.
Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to conceal carry a dirk
It is illegal to conceal carry a bowie knife
It is illegal to conceal carry a switchblade knife
It is illegal to conceal carry a machete
It is illegal to conceal carry a ballistic knife
It is illegal to conceal carry throwing stars or oriental darts
It is illegal to conceal carry any knife of a like kind to one of the above listed knives
47. Washington Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own bowie knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a disguised knife, such as a lipstick or belt buckle
It is legal to own throwing stars
What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own a switchblade or other spring blade knife in the state of Washington.

Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to conceal carry a dirk
It is illegal to conceal carry a dagger
It is illegal to conceal carry any dangerous weapon
It is illegal to open or conceal carry any weapon into a Courtroom
It is also illegal to carry or display a dagger, sword, knife, or other cutting or stabbing instrument in a manner or under circumstances that would cause alarm or show an intent to intimidate another. In 1994, in State v. Spencer, the Supreme Court of Washington held that there must be a sufficient basis for the alarm, such that a reasonable person would be alarmed. Also in 1994, the Court held, in State v. Byrd, that because the display of a weapon in a manner that caused reasonable fear or alarm could be done without intent, a violation of the statute did not require intent. This means that one does not have to intend to cause alarm or fear in order to be guilty of a crime under the statute.



48. West Virginia Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a switchblade
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own a Bowie knife
It is legal to own a ballistic knife
What is Illegal to Own

West Virginia law does not prohibit the ownership of any type of knife.

Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to conceal carry a dirk, dagger, or other stabbing knife with a blade over 3 ½ inches
It is illegal to conceal carry a switchblade, or any automatic knife
It is illegal to conceal carry a gravity knife
It is illegal to conceal carry a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is illegal to conceal carry any instrument capable of inflicting cutting, stabbing, or tearing wounds
It is illegal to conceal carry any “deadly weapon”
49. Wisconsin Knife Laws

What is Illegal to Own

It is illegal to own a switchblade knife
It is illegal to own a gravity knife
It is illegal to own a butterfly knife
It is illegal to own any knife substantially similar to a switchblade, gravity knife, or butterfly knife
Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal in Wisconsin to carry a concealed and dangerous weapon.

Definition of Various Knives

A switchblade is defined as any knife having a blade which opens by pressing a button, spring or other device in the handle or by gravity or by a thrust or movement. In State v. Krause, the Appellate Court upheld Mr. Krause’s conviction for carrying a concealed dangerous weapon, finding that his knife, which had a blade that was serrated on one side, sharp on the other, and had a point at the end, was a switchblade. The blade was contained in two casings: the serrated blade fit into one of the casings and the cutting edge in the other. The casings were secured by a clasp, that when removed, allowed one casing to fall away from the other by the force of gravity, exposing the blade.

Neither the Wisconsin code nor its case law offers a definition of any other type of knife. When words or terms are not defined by the legislature, in the state code, Court’s use the ‘plain English meaning’ of the word, or that meaning provided in Webster’s dictionary.

50. Wyoming Knife Laws

What is Legal to Own

It is legal to own a switchblade
It is legal to own a Balisong, or butterfly knife
It is legal to own a bowie knife
It is legal to own a dirk, dagger, poniard, or other stabbing knife
It is legal to own a stiletto
It is legal to own a gravity knife
What is Illegal to Own

Wyoming law does not prohibit the ownership of any type of knife.

Restrictions on Carry

It is illegal to conceal carry a deadly weapon in Wyoming.

Federal Court Rules Citizens Have No Right to Film Politicians & Police in Public

OFF THE WIRE
In a stunning departure from lengthy precedent, a federal appeals court has ruled citizens have no right to film politicians and police in public.

Friday, September 29, 2017

BABE OF THE DAY

Image may contain: 1 person

Motorcycle Noise And Money

OFF THE WIRE
fuck these guys,performing highway robbery
agingrebel.com
It is tempting for bikers to laugh off the holy crusade against “motorcycle noise” and aftermarket exhaust pipes. In the first place, the reasons for replacing the stock exhaust on a Harley are obvious to the people who do it.
Back in the day, 82 inch Shovelheads made about 70 horsepower right out of the box. Brand new 82 inch Twin Cams make about 58 horsepower. The reason for the decrease is that modern bikes are intentionally set up at the factory to run inefficiently. They must run poorly in order to meet the mileage, noise and pollution abatement goals that are mandated by a self-righteous and distant bureaucracy.
It all seems like so much red tape to most riders. Harley-Davidson does not build motorcycles that run well. Harley builds motorcycles that meet arbitrary and fatuous government standards. The standard set of improvements made to brand new motorcycles even has a name. Most people call it “the Harley tax.”
The Harley tax is the amount new owners must pay to “let the engine breathe.” The results of changing the pipes and air filter and fattening the gas to air mixture are immediate and potentially life saving. Motorcycles are small and vulnerable, so riders commonly try to stay safe by out-accelerating danger. And, factory pipes frustrate that ambition to stay alive.

Loud Pipes Save Lives

Secondly, as anybody who has ever actually ridden a motorcycle knows, Harleys are not vehicles so much as they are cloaks of invisibility. It is not simply a matter of motorists not seeing motorcycles. Drivers tend not to recognize the motorcycles they see as other motor vehicles sharing the road with them. So it is common for drivers to simply run over bikes. In the United States these collisions make the papers about 15 times a day. And, it is much harder to survive a freeway collision on a bike than in a car.
Motorcycles that are loud enough to be heard inside a sound-proofed passenger compartment are not only better able to run away from bike-blind motorists. They are also much harder to ignore. Even motorcycle cops know this.
In 2007, the city of Oakland put stock pipes on all 30 of its Harley-Davidsons. The new pipes stayed on until an Oakland cop riding a Harley with a stock exhaust was struck by a driver who said he never knew the motorcycle was there.
According to then Oakland Deputy Chief Dave Kozicki, “the decibel drop sparked a chorus of complaints from other officers, who said they felt less safe.” The department concluded, Kozicki went on to say, that “it was in the best interest of the officers to put more-audible pipes back on.”

The Noise Nuts

The campaign against “motorcycle noise” is also easy to dismiss because it is led by a bare handful of fatuous and unpleasant busybodies.
The concept of “noise pollution” was invented in 2004 by a UCLA professor of “political activism” named Ted Rueter. Rueter started a campaign called “Noise Free America” and as recently as 2005 he had to justify the concept to the left leaning digest Utne Reader. “A lot of people get off on noise and think that there’s something wrong with peace and quiet,” Rueter told the digest. “We’re still fighting a public perception that this is a trivial issue and anyone who’s concerned or interested in curbing noise is a crank.”
Other cranks became aroused when they heard Rueter’s seductive call and most of them took pains to make themselves appear more important than they actually are. The well known and often quoted group Noise Off is a guy named Richard Tur. (The spelling is not a typographical error. He actually spells his last name without the final “D.”)
A “citizen’s group” in Maine, called MECALM (Maine Citizens Against Loud Motorcycles) is a guy named Andy Ford who has a neighbor who is a state senator. A similar “grass roots organization” in New Hampshire called NHCALM is another guy named Bill Mitchell.
It is common to underestimate how important fanatics like Rueter, Tur, Ford and Mitchell are becoming. But, they are important because they are warping public perception and inspiring new laws.

New California Law

One of those is a California law scheduled to go into effect next year. It is called the “Motorcycle Anti-Tampering Act” and it was sponsored by a California State Senator named Fran Pavley. Pavley said her new law was aimed at “a few bad apples on our roads (who) are infringing on the rights of others with their illegal, attention-seeking loud pipes.” Pavley’s statement was a loathsome lie but it became true because nobody was able to contradict her.
Pavley is a former middle school teacher who represents the most affluent neighborhoods in Los Angeles and she demonstrates a tendency to treat other adults as if they are her middle school students. She is so ridiculous a person that it is also tempting to either ignore her or laugh her away. Unfortunately, she has the power to enact ridiculous laws.
Pavley’s law effectively forbids Harley owners from replacing their exhausts with better ones. The act requires motorcycle exhausts sold after 2012 to have a visible EPA stamp. The law also requires that motorcycles not exceed a sound level of 80 decibels which is 1.3 decibels quieter than New York’s tony Indochine restaurant on a quiet night as measured by the Zagat restaurant guide. It is 10 decibels quieter than a normal conversation, 30 decibels less than a lawn mower and about 15 decibels quieter than the police bikes in Oakland when they idle. Eighty decibels is also five decibels quieter than the traffic noise inside an auto with the windows rolled up.

Searches And Fines

Police departments throughout the country have eagerly jumped on the motorcycle noise abatement bandwagon. Not only is “loud” quickly becoming probable cause to detain passing motorcyclists. Ensuring that all passing motorcycles are not “loud” has become a reason to implement motorcycle road blocks. These road blocks are, in effect, dragnets that allow police to stop bikers in order to try to get something on them.
The 80 decibel limit is so arbitrary and unreasonable that it gives police a reason to stop and fine everybody. And, as everybody already knows, these fines are a growing revenue source for cities and towns desperate for cash. They are in effect, in the most literal way, highway robbery.
Money, rather than neurotics, is the main reason why motorcycle noise abatement campaigns are picking up steam. There is money in “motorcycle noise” for police and politicians.

Chris Real

There is also money in “motorcycle noise” for a guy named Chris Real.
In order to write the new California law and similar laws in cement, police must have a scientifically justifiable standard for measuring motorcycle noise. And, they must also have the equipment to make those scientific measurements. The author of the scientific procedure is an entrepreneur named Chris Real. He also makes the equipment.
The new standard for measuring motorcycle noise is titled SAE J2825. SAE used to be an abbreviation for “Society of Automotive Engineers.” It is now the trademark of a for-profit company called SAE International. SAE sets numerous standards ranging from socket sizes to the standard dimension of cargo containers. It leans heavily on independent contractors to invent its standards. Chris Real, who owns a company named DPS Technical Incrporated in Upland, California is the author of SAE J2825.
For the last year, since the California “Motorcycle Anti-Tampering Act” was signed into law, Real has been teaching the procedure he invented to cops around the country. The training in California has been subsidized by the state Office of Traffic Safety. The same state agency has also subsidized a campaign in Elk Grove, California to see how much revenue police there can generate by writing motorcycle noise tickets. The Elk Grove police have been writing the tickets for the last year. They don’t write noise tickets for jackhammers or trucks. They only write noise tickets for motorcycles.
Real’s procedure uses what Real sells. DPS Technical’s main product is a “law enforcement sound measurement kit.” The kit includes a “Sound Level Meter, ANSI Type 1 Field Calibrator, 2 vibration tachometers, measuring tape, OHV RPM testing data, spark arrester probe and case.” It also includes “certificates of calibration, personal protection equipment and field carrying case and (an) informational DVD.”
A “typical kit for field enforcement purposes,” the “PN: SLM ENV KT 1” costs $3,100.
No highway robber should be without one.